Most of us were brought up with rudimentary beliefs about gender and sex. The sexes are divided into female and male, which correspond to two genders, women and men. Many people are coming to recognize that the classifications of gender and sex are significantly more complicated as transgender, nonbinary, and gender non-conforming persons become more visible (Torgrimson and Minson, 2005). We’ll study the differences between gender and sex. What is sex? Traditionally, the society taught us that sex is of two kinds; female and male. You may also know that some individuals are intersex or have a sexual development discrepancy (DSD). DSD is a term that refers to genetics, anatomy, or sex traits that aren’t male or female. It’s vital to refer to persons using their preferred pronouns and names. Some people identify as “intersex” and use the term to describe themselves. Others have abandoned the label and instead refer to their ailment as a DSD. Genitals Some think that genitals, with men having dicks and ladies having vaginas, determine sex. This criterion, however, excludes certain persons with DSD. It can also exclude trans persons who are either non-operative, meaning they don’t want pre-operative or bottom surgery (Johnson, et al., 2019). For example, A transgender guy, born as a woman but now identifies as a man, might have a vagina but identify as male. Chromosomes There are two kinds of chromosomes. The XX and the XY. The males are believed to be carriers of XY chromosomes, while the females are carriers of XX chromosomes. This excludes those with DSD who may have various chromosomal configurations or sexual development variations. It also ignores the reality that trans people’s chromosomes frequently do not “match” their gender. For example, a transsexual woman might be feminine but yet have XY chromosomes. Primary sex characteristics We tend to link estrogen dominance with females and testosterone dominance with males. It’s critical to realize that everyone possesses both these hormones. Estradiol, the most common type of estrogen, is essential for sexual function in those who were born with the masculine gender. Sexual excitement. Secondary characteristics Several secondary sex features are noticeable. Face hair, development of breast tissue, and voice range are all included. As a result, they’re frequently employed to make rapid sex judgments. Irrespective of whether someone identifies with the sex they had at birth; secondary sex traits differ widely. Take, for example, facial hair. Some designated female persons acquire facial hair later in life, whereas others who were initially male at birth do not, and erectile dysfunction are all affected by estradiol. Although hormone replacement treatment is available to trans and gender-nonconforming persons, a trans guy who isn’t on hormones is no less manly than one who is. What is Gender? It is the social characteristics and possibilities connected with being either female or male, as well as the interactions between women and men as well as the interrelationships between women and men. These characteristics, opportunities, and connections are socially formed and acquired through socialization. They are contextually and temporally particular, as well as changing. In a particular setting, gender determines what is expected, acceptable, and appreciated in a woman or a man. In most communities, women and men are assigned different tasks, engage in different activities, control, access resources, and have different decision-making chances. Gender is a component of a larger socio-cultural framework (Rich-Edwards, et al., 2018). Class, race, socioeconomic level, ethnic group, and age are all relevant parameters for sociocultural study. “Cisgender” refers to an individual recognized with the gender given to them at birth. Nonbinary, genderqueer or genderfluid identities exist for those who are not cisgender and don’t identify with the gender binary, male or female, boy or girl. Someone is said to be transgender if their gender identity differs from their birth sex. Transgender People whose gender identity differs from the biological sex are referred to as transgender or trans. The protected trait of gender reassignment is described as follows; If a person intends to undertake, is undergoing, or has undertaken a process to reassign their sex by modifying physiological or other sex traits, that person has the protected feature of gender reassignment. This term encompasses a diverse group of people at various phases of transition. To be included in the description of the protected trait, an individual does not have to have officially altered their gender or had any surgery. Anyone who’s been treated unfairly due to gender transition is protected, irrespective of whether they have that feature or not. Many trans persons undergo a process known as transitioning, which involves changing how others perceive them and their appearance to match their gender identification. It may entail medical treatment, like hormone therapy or surgery, and changes in appearance, names, and pronouns. Some persons may not undergo surgical operations, preferring to have a “lived experience” in the gender they want to identify with. Definitions and phrases are very subjective; transitioning persons may not always identify as trans. They may identify as a man or a woman or have distinct preferences and terminology to express themselves. Implementing Sex and Gender-based Analysis Many trans people go through a transition that entails changing how others think of them or their appearance to fit their gender identity. Medical treatment, including surgery or hormone therapy, help them in changing their appearance and names to fit into society (Moore 2002). They would rather experience what it feels like in their initial sex than undergo surgical procedures. Individuals who have changed may not necessarily identify as trans, and definitions and expressions are very subjective. They may identify themselves as male or female or express themselves using different tastes and vocabulary. Conclusion We continue to regard sex and gender as though they are the same thing. They are interchangeable terms. We utilize them in research, education, and initiatives, with disastrous results. Even though there are different definitions of gender and sex worldwide with some similarities, we should be able to do this right after decades of trying. References Moore, H. L. (2002). Understanding sex and gender. In Companion encyclopedia of anthropology (pp. 847-864). Routledge. Johnson, J. L., Greaves, L., & Repta, R. (2009). Better science with sex and gender: facilitating the use of a sex and gender-based analysis in health research. International journal for equity in health, 8(1), 1-11. Torgrimson, B. N., & Minson, C. T. (2005). Sex and gender: what is the difference?. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(3), 785-787. Rich-Edwards, J. W., Kaiser, U. B., Chen, G. L., Manson, J. E., & Goldstein, J. M. (2018). Sex and gender differences research design for basic, clinical, and population studies: essentials for investigators. Endocrine reviews, 39(4), 424-439.